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| updating 10 key SSD ideas
editor - September 2, 2014
|It's September already, and 8
months of another new year in SSD history already behind us, I started
reflecting on what have been the defining characteristics of developments in
the SSD market this year. |
As we approach what is traditionally
another busy quarter of search and business activity in the SSD market I
realized - that simply too much has changed already since
to make it safe for casual readers to coast along relying on the safe
assumptions which they reset even a year ago. So this checklist is like an early
version of an end of year market roundup.
So here's my list of about
10 key SSD ideas - each of which there has been associated with
significant progress in 2014 for any of the following reasons:-
- bringing into focus a new SSD idea which might become important
- clarifying the progress (upwards or downwards) of previously alerted
big SSD ideas
|key SSD idea #1|
This is about closing important gaps in the
intelligence of message passing and the speed of data access between
application processors and SSD controllers.
(SSD controllers which -
in the vast majority of SSDs - come attached with their own offload processors
or associated data movement engines.)
Traditionally SSDs have been
designed to reduce the access times to data - but within the framework of
commands, APIs and data structures which have been designed for applications
agnostic data storage drives.
And in order to make SSDs easier to
use - classic SSD controllers also perform a lot of house-keeping and
related functions - in a way which is the apps processor doesn't need to know
about (although it can collect stats related to endurance etc).
is much evidence to support the idea that both applications performance and
data storage efficiency
can be greatly improved if the flash management and apps management processor
are either the same CPU - or if they can talk to each other in a more
These improvements (which enable data handling
responsibilities to be partitioned downwards to the flash or upwards to the
apps host - depending on which has the best view of what is needed) have
already been implemented by various SSD vendors in experimental or custom
These concepts - which first took root in large web scale server
farms - have also delivered useful results in some industrial SSDs when
scaled down to a single SSD.
A handful of SSD vendors have already
done work in this area - notably
Fusion-io (in whose
non offloaded SSD
controller architecture - the flash management and apps processors were
the same processor).
But in 2015 and 2016 these concepts will become
much more explicitly talked about.
Related SSD drive companies:-
SSD array companies (who probably already do some degree of in-situ SSD
|key SSD idea #2|
This year - as part of a continuing trend - we've seen an
upswing in the number of companies who offer
PCIe compatible SSDs
in form factors like M.2 and 2.5".
The barriers to market have
been reduced by standards such as NVMe and SATA express - which by creating
frameworks of software and hardware interchangeability - have minimized the
risks for oems who incoprorate such SSDs into their storage and computing
An important new factor for the PCIe SSD market this year
was the materialization of product announcements centered around the core
concept of using PCIe as an interconnection fabric between racks.
key pioneers driving these efforts have been
|key SSD idea #3|
random access memory doesn't have to be RAM
The idea of using
flash as a new memory tier isn't new. And neither is the idea of using flash in
DRAM memory slots. But in 2014 there were several developments which added
weight to the usefulness of these ideas.
- Applicable to any kind of standard flash SSD -
software (described by StorageSearch.com as "one of the most significant
SSD software products launched in 2014") is an API toolset which gives
software designers the freedom to treat flash in a similar way to DRAM - thereby
being able to rely on much higher capacities within any given monetary budget
Although the performance characteristics of such memory
won't suit all applications - the ability to experiment and invest in a
technology platform which promises to avoid lock-in to any particular SSD form
factor - will encourage the development of new types of data repurposing
are you ready to
rethink enterprise DRAM architecture?
- Those who may have been disappointed by the low aspirations of
Diablo's 1st generation
memory channel SSDs - were given a glimpse of something more akin to what they
might have been wishing for - in the unveiling of an ambitious 2nd
generation architecture which promised to go much further in 2015.
key ingredient here is a new software framework (Carbon2) with features like
The new software is being offered as part of
developer packages which anticipate 2nd generation MCS hardware which will be
fast flash DIMMs compatible with DDR4.
|key SSD idea #4|
micro tiering and micro clouds
One of the trends in computer
architecture in recent years is that new software architectural concepts which
deliver sustainable efficiency or management efficiencies have found it easier
to get their benefits established and recognized at a large scale - as part
of big web entities or cloud infrastructure.
But the lessons learned
have been duly noted and reapplied to other use cases and are now finding
their way into individual rack scale products too.
3 companies which
stand out for their different approaches in this respect are:-
|key SSD idea #5|
R/W (including DSP) data integrity management in flash
2 years ago
- there were only 10 companies with
technologies in their SSD product lines.
It was important to know
who they were at the time.
Because looking ahead from the perspective
of 2012 they and their licensees or acquirers were going to be among the first
vendors who could leverage the economics of next generation flash.
did this by moving away from classical flash controller technologies - which
relied on anonymous industry wide characterization statistics for key flash
parameters - and moving towards an adaptive model - which was able to
recognize and grade different qualities of individual flash blocks (even
within the same SSD).
The new adaptive DSP technology was able to
choose from a wide bandolero of timing and ECC techniques instead of being
dependent on a single caliber flash manage bullet.
By the middle of
2014 - adaptive R/W had become a mainstream technology - deployed by most
leading enterprise SSD systems (in applicable products) - so its strategic
advantage as a competitive differentiator has diminished.
has become the new "standard technology" for handling all sub 20nm
planar MLC flash devices.
But it would be wrong to think of it as a
uniform technology. There are significant differences in the scope,
granularity and associated controller and power footprints of the many
different adaptive DSP flash IP sets used in the SSD market.
|key SSD idea #6|
Although 3D nand flash SSDs have been shipping in the
market - the current technology doesn't deliver enough efficiency and cost
advantages to replace 2D in the short term. Many manufacturability and design
problems remain to be solved before that is likely to happen in mainstream SSD
On the other hand the raw
1st generation 3D flash seems to be 3x to 4x better than 2D at
the same line geometries - according to early work done by an
company FMJ Storage.
these early impressions are confirmed in later volume production - this could
open up the possibility of alternative markets for this type of flash.
also:- flash memory news
|key SSD idea #7|
reported in 2014 seemed to indicate that SSD companies aren't worth as much as
Although there are special factors which complicate any
particular analysis - as I discussed in the cases of
LSI's SSD business,
and SanDisk acquiring
Fusion-io - it's
clear that from the viewpoint of the people who matter (those with the money)
an SSD company with a rich set of IP and strong market recognition in 2014
isn't generally worth as much as you might have thought if you had extrapolated
from SSD company values in 2013.
Why is that?
In one way it
seems perverse - given that the overall market opportunity for SSDs is now
generally assumed to be much larger than it was before.
I think the
key factor at work here is evidence (as reported in financial reports of some
leading SSD companies) that competition is much tougher than before (due to
the growing number of competitors and also the rise in the quality of such
But another key risk factor (for any encumbent SSD
vendor) is vulnerability to future technology shocks - which can disrupt
their business prospects.
These technology shocks don't just stem
from new startup SSD companies - but can also occur as a result of macro changes
in the market as users
change the way they use and deploy the same type of SSDs when using
|key SSD idea #8|
pricing and business models
How much should you pay for an
enterprise SSD array?
And what exactly is it that you're getting?
SSD vendors had always been enthusiastic about what their products and
technologies could do in the first decade of enterprise flash - the language
with which they bundled their pricing offers did not show the same leaps of
creative imagination which they were expecting their customers to make.
in 2014 - a small number of SSD pricing pioneers designed new enticing
pricing models for their flagship flash arrays which broke away from the
formulas of the past.
Behind these new pricing models was the explicit
recognition that there is always a high degree of uncertainty involved in
such purchases for various technical and business reasons.
This was the
subject of my previous home page blog - Exiting the Astrological Age of
Enterprise SSD Pricing - which describes why the change is happening now and
names the companies who are leading this charge.
(Please scroll down
this page to see the full text of the pricing article - which hasn't been moved
from this page yet.)
|key SSD idea #9|
re rackmount SSDs
given its already substantial size and gravitational business pull for SSD
drive makers - there are still significant parts of the enterprise SSD market
which remain uncharted and unsatisfied.
For investors and SSD
startups the opportunities to grow business in under exploited high value user
territories may be a source of comfort - given the potential upside.
for users who are still waiting for vendors to offer them the kind of products
and services they really need - it's a source of frustration.
described the reasons for these market voids in a recent article -
hidden segments in the enterprise.
|key SSD idea #10|
importance of SSD software
One of the key ideas which permeates
everything now in the SSD market is the importance of software to the SSD
an article in
January this year I said
"the SSD software market is getting
ready for a world in which all enterprise data touches SSDs"
elsewhere in the same article I also asserted
"the winners in
SSD software could be as important for data infrastructure as Microsoft was for
PCs, or Oracle was for databases, or Google was for search."
from any confirmatory events in 2014 - when I think about to what might
happen in the next few years - the overwhelming importance of SSD-centric
software seems like a no brainer.
I think we will see not only new
predictable generations of SSD software coming to market (which will be
designed to work with currently known computer architecture models) but also
entirely new data architectures and ecosystems whose very existence has
been predicated on the assumption of a widely deployed SSD enhanced base
|other key SSD ideas in 2014?|
top SSD companies...
the notes above I've focused on significant market wide SSD trends rather
than significant SSD companies.
There are many significant SSD
companies who have done noteworthy things in 2014 or who have had noteworthy
things done to them.
For a summary of 2014 (so far) as seen from
an SSD company list perspective - then as usual - the best place to look is
the Top SSD Companies
Series. In particular:-
|Exiting the Astrological Age
of Enterprise SSD Pricing|
editor - July 17, 2014
|There was one of those big moons facing
me for most of the 1 hour drive back from the theater last night - and my wife
and I who both have science and engineering based backgrounds were speculating
about the possible causes of this dramatic effect.|
My contribution to
this conversation about the big ghosty shimmering light in the sky was lacking
in credibility however - as my brain receptors had filtered out optics on
first contact in school when I already knew that my interest was
electronics and not bendy glass stuff.
So the plausible scientific
explanations in the car driving towards the big hanging moon on the horizon
were mostly coming from my wife Janet - who had worked during one university
summer vacation at an optoelectronics company (1975) - and whose final year
project involved a laser cannon which was bigger than those you sometimes see in
the Big Bang Theory - and more like the size of those in Pirates of the
Caribbean. (Lasers were generally big in those days, had massive power packs
and were kept in locked rooms with danger signs to deter terrorist students
playing with them.)
But - no - she didn't know what made the moon look
like that either.
And I realized almost as the words were leaving my
lips that my theory about the moon's appearance was going to sound like a
mash up between all the concepts I'd ever heard of that could bend light:-
gravity? refraction? Hogwart spells? - It was all the same to me.
It was all part of that bendy glass stuff - which I was never interested in -
and it reminds me now of failed school physics experiments.
How many colors do you say you see?
I'm color blind. Who needs that
many colors? In a later part of my career I used to joke with advertisers of 24
bit color graphics accelerators for workstations - 8 bits is more than I need.
- It's lucky your customers aren't all like me.
Anyway Janet and I
both agreed that the best thing to do would be to look it up on the internet
when we got home - which is what we did.
Don't ask me. I was none the wiser because the most interesting
explanation which Janet found involved looking at some optical illusion diagrams
which involved a load of shapes and colors - at which point I lost interest.
was interesting that the moon on our journey back from the play looked like
something out of a science fiction film hovering above the road in the direction
we were driving.
Apparently it wasn't just the size - but the dramatic
I said the sci-fi idea would work better for me if I
was seeing 2 moons.
That's another color analysis based value
judgement I guess.
When we visited the
National Gallery (in London)
with Janet's sister once - they had a special exhibition of Italian paintings. I
was through in 5 minutes and spent the next couple of hours reading a book in
the tea shop - which is at the exit to the maze.
Your ancestors and
mine didn't have the luxury being able to google pseudo scientific explanations
of the lights they saw in the night sky - and that's why - over a period of
thousands of years they came up with many fascinating stories which tried to
explain what they were seeing and how it all tied together in a reassuring way
which helped them understand the world they were living in.
brings us back to SSDs - and in particular - the subject of enterprise SSD
Although the many stories about the true nature of the
stars, moon and other heavenly bodies in the night sky were created and
developed over many thousands of years - the SSD market which has a
history (spanning about 40 years) - has nevertheless managed to accrue an
imaginative body of literature which includes truths, half truths,
mysticism, misunderstandings. myths, legends - and in some cases - downright
balderdash - when it comes to the subject of SSD costs, pricing and
As someone who has been involved with the enterprise
SSD market since the 1980s - it's been interesting for me to observe how these
stories grew. I've written more than a few myself. And over the years I've
collected snippets from some of these SSD price anecdotes, cost
justifications and switching model anecdotes in an my article which started
out with the title Clarifying
If we use the astrology / astronomy comparison and
relate this to enterprise SSD pricing - I think we can divide SSD history into
these simple phases.
- the Dark Sky phase of SSD pricing:- from the 1980s upto the late 1990s.
this period - as far as most people were concerned - the inherent beauty of the
possibilities in the SSD market were as opaque and unknown to most people in
the computer market as the brilliance of colors in a picture by Caravagio were
to me when I raced through an exhibition of his paintings. (As I described
SSDs didn't need universal cost justifications. Because using
SSDs was mostly a tactical project related design decision made when no
other technical approach would satisfy the mission objective - (speed,
reliability or both) - and when it was desirable to get the system working -
despite the very high cost.
- the pre-modern era of SSDs - from the late 1990s to 2002.
this period - there were several pioneering companies in the enterprise SSD
market who had figured out economic justifcations for users (with the right kind
of application profiles) to deploy SSD accelerators as a much cheaper option
to the other alternatives they had using the arguments of SSD-CPU equivalence.
problem for vendors in that phase of the market was that - as far as most of
their potential customers were concerned - SSDs were like the twinkling
objects in someone else's sky - maybe on another planet or at best in the other
That presented many challenges of
education. And even
when customers were won around to the arguments - there was a lack of automation
support for implementing SSD acceleration solutions. A serious inhibitor to
revenue growth was the number of
hot spot tuning
engineers employed by SSD companies - and the willingness of customers to let
SSD suppliers from small companies delve deeply into their live computing
infrastructure and twiddle with the data addresses and apps.
another serious problem for vendors in that period was that most users did have
other viable alternatives which were easier for them to understand - even if
they did cost more.
- the modern era
of SSDs started in 2003.
That was the year when not only did SSD
stars become visible to a larger population of people - but the first
scientific theories about SSD pricing were published and analyzed - relating the
SSD CPU equivalence concept to a market impact - rather than merely a
project by project impact assessment.
It didn't make the earlier
business development problems go away - but it meant that SSD companies and the
founders of future SSD companies who understood the market models - realized
that if they invested enough resources into fixing SSD adoption inhibitors -
there would be a big enough market in the future to make such investments pay
There was also an optimistic mood starting in the industry from
2003 onwards that "the market advance of SSDs as a significant well known
core market within the computer industry had become a historical inevitability
- and the only serious technology which could displace an SSD from its market
role was another SSD."
That was markedly different from earlier
phases in SSD market history - in which an enterprise user might buy an SSD
accelerator to solve an urgent performance problem - but then for a similar
project a few years later might find that due to advances in processor speed,
server RAM limits or speedups in hard disk array interfaces - they could get
by without SSDs (and in the meantime the original SSD product line had
terminated and the pool of alternate SSD suppliers was tiny and hard to find.)
new dynamic - once an SSD customer - always an SSD customer - meant that SSD
vendors didn't simply have to keep finding customers who had never used SSDs
before. If they kept improving their products - those same customers would be
still be receptive to them. And for new entrants in the SSD market - the
growing population of SSD savvy user sites - meant they could significantly
shorten their business development lead times.
How does that relate to
enterprise flash pricing and the affordability of SSDs?
- 2008 to 2013 - the clear sky era of enterprise flash.
2008 - even
users who weren't going to buy an SSD until many years later - couldn't fail
to notice the twinkling market efforts emanating from an SSD ecosystem
which numbered 100 SSD companies listed on StorageSearch.com by the end of 2008.
But as the visible SSD universe expanded into the start of the
SSD market bubble in
2010 - the market moved into a new phase of multiple interpretations,
explanations and misinformation about the economic cost benefits of enterprise
flash - which was compounded by these problems.
Many SSD vendors
themselves were clueless about the real economic benefits of their products -
because they didn't know enough about the user application experience - and the
diversity of user businesses and risk profiles for projects.
spawned many techno babble justifications for SSDs - which sounded plausible -
because they included SSD
performance jargon and because they came out of the mouths and blogs of
technical enterprise SSD marketers.
But many of these in my view
were sadly about as useless (in the context of being usable business ideas
which you could extrapolate good decisions from) as if NASA had taken my
knowledge of optical physics (which I mentioned above in my big moon story) -
and if NASA had used my knowledge of optics to design experiments for the next
generation of deep space probes.
OK - on that basis (being the lowest
bidder) I might have got away with that for about 10 years till the space probe
reached its destination - but if NASA had also relied on my equally scant
knowledge of microwave communications - let's just say that they would have
realized they had a communications problem while they were still on the ground.
goes to show that someone can be an expert at one subject - while being clueless
at many other things at the same time.
that 2014 will be seen as the start of a new phase of creativity in the
enterprise SSD market on the subject of pricing and affordability.
evidence for that - I'm going to mention 3 companies at the end of this article
- whose recent activities - while different in detail - were swirling around in
my head this week.
Inadvertently - these companies and their pricing
ideas were looking for a way to be related to each other in a blog - by a
means which was more memorable than some read-and-forget comments tagged
onto the end of an SSD news story or blog.
Before I give you that
list - here are the some of the market assumptions which underlie this new
Most competent SSD marketers will admit to some of these
Most competent SSD users will recognize some of these
- They don't really understand all the technology in their products. (Only 3
people in the company understand the technology. And less than half of what they
say is understood by anyone else. And that's a high comprehension score
compared to the lawyers who file the patents. Which is fortunate - because the
competitors will get to read the gibberish they write later.)
don't really know what all the other companies in the SSD market are doing.
(Who's got time to read all that stuff? And how can you even be sure the
market reports are
writing about the things that matter? Just follow the trails on linkedin - even
if only to get an early alert about your own job being advertised.)
can't predict exactly where the next few revolutions in SSD thinking will
come from and which new ideas will need to be adopted, competitively
countered or rejected.
They don't understand everything they would
ideally like to know about the current user experience of SSDs or the
future user experience either.
They do know that most enterprise SSD
users will - given time and a fair wind - will come back to buy more SSDs.
Amidst all that
uncertainty here are 3 companies which are intended to help get more business
done. I've put them in the chronological date order of my learning about
their new business models - a span of 2 months - so the only significance of
this listing system - is that it will make it easier for me to add more names
to the list when I do my end of year round up of 2014.
- Even if they can articulate their exact technical needs today - they know
those needs will change.
Just like the vendors - they don't
understand all the technology either. And curiously they see a bigger range of
different competing SSD solutions in the market than the vendors they talk to
seem to be aware of. That prompts the question - just who are the experts in
the SSD market?
believe everything about the past, present or future of the SSD market which
the vendors are telling them.
They know they can't believe everything
they read in SSD blogs either. But which is the more risky decision strategy?
Relying on so called expert analysis in blogs which offer simple diagnosis
and prescriptions for the SSD hard drive headache in a way which sounds
simple and understandable? Or working harder to become a better expert than
the enterprise SSD bloggers out there - who - while being good writers -
have mostly been parachuted into a country they couldn't find if you showed
them a map.
They know that they can't afford not to buy SSD somewhere.
But the best places to start with SSD may not be the best places to continue
investment. Many of the solutions which promise the smallest integration
bumps today will lead to much bigger bumps in the future.
if something goes wrong - it will be their problem.
way to exit the astrological age of enterprise SSD pricing
Tegile Systems -
effective (virtual) capacity
Violin Memory -
as you grow (for Windows Flash Array)
Does this mean that
rational and analytically based SSD price and competitive adoption models are
All of the models I've presented in these pages
since 2003 are still valid as explanations of the forces driving disruptive
switching behavior and SSD market adoption. Though while many people still
need to know this stuff - most of you don't.
This new era of simpler
sounding virtualized SSD pricing models won't make the market any easier
But what it will do - is give users new choices about
the kinds of risks they feel comfortable with taking on.
pricing preference models (and the new ones and the me-toos which will
inevitably follow) will add more multipliers to pre-existing
By which I mean that not only will rackmount SSDs be
differentiated by the internal technology architectures and compatibility
roadmaps as they have been upto now - but 2 similar products from 2
vendors which have almost identical technology inside - and a similar cost to
build - can now radiate different degrees of user attraction - depending
on the pricing models by which they are monetized.
It will be
interesting to see which ideas get copied most. And to see how much impact they
PS - Oh if you want to know what we saw at the theater last night
- it was 2x one act plays -
Miss Julie (Strindberg)
followed by Black Comedy (Shaffer) at the Minerva in Chichester, England.
They were really enjoyable. And I look forward to seeing more. (As you can see -
I'm not really cut out to be a drama critic.)
|In October 2005 - Texas
Memory Systems and CCP Games revealed that the world's largest game universe was
accelerated by a single 64GB RamSan SSD. |
A record breaking 17,000+
concurrent users interacted together within the EVE Online (science fiction)
game environment running on 150 IBM servers. The SSD resulted in a 40x
improvement in performance.
|Hmm... it looks like you're seriously
interested in SSDs. So please bookmark this page and come back again soon. |
|About the publisher - 22
years guiding the enterprise market|
|"The winners in SSD
software could be as important for data infrastructure as Microsoft was for
PCs, or Oracle was for databases, or Google was for search."|
|all enterprise data
will touch an SSD |
|One of the challenges for
the enterprise SSD market when designing new products is to understand complex
customer needs and decision criteria - which go beyond the traditional bullet
segmentation models are needed because the enterprise SSD market is moving
into uncharted territories and use cases where a considerable proportion of the
customer needs which affect buying behavior are still formally unrecognized as
hidden segments in the enterprise|
|If you're a systems
designer it's useful to know that the longevity difference between "good
enough" and the best endurance architecture schemes can still be 2x, 3x or
100x - even when using the same memory. |
|SSD endurance - the
forever war - now in 3D|
you've solved the problem of making SSDs reliable and fast - it's tempting to
create an SSD instruction set which which focuses on application layer needs too
- and not just those of dumb storage"|
|NxGn Data promises
in-situ SSD processing (July 29, 2014)|
| "Our past work
showed that application-unaware design of memory controllers, and in particular
memory scheduling algorithms, leads to uncontrolled interference of applications
in the memory system. |
"Such uncontrolled interference can lead to
denial of service to some applications, low system performance, and an inability
to satisfy performance requirements, which makes the system uncontrollable and
unpredictable" - said Onur Mutlu, Assistant Professor Electrical and
Computer Engineering - Carnegie Mellon University.
|Are you ready to
| Today - if you're in a
big company in a traditional market - and hoping to do something equally big in
the SSD market - then $1 billion may not be enough - but $5 billion may be too
|VCs & SSDs|
|The new economics of SSD
storage took the CPU designers and OS software developers by surprise. Instead
of weaving in SSD support into computer architecture over a 10 year period -
based on an incremental technology roadmap - the SSD market has gate-crashed the
server party - and the SSD roadmaps are changing too fast for the old style
computer vendors to keep up.
|the New Business Case
for SSD ASAPs |
|"Bottlenecks in the
pure SSD datacenter will be much more serious than in the HDD world - because
responding slowly will be equivalent to transaction failure."|
|will SSDs end my
| Diablo unveils DDR-4
flash DIMM SSDs|
|Editor:- August 7, 2014 - Diablo yesterday
announced details of a new 2nd generation
SSD - low latency flash SSD accelerators in DDR-4 sockets - which will
sample to oems in the first half of 2015.|
|Why can't SSD's true
believers agree on a single shared vision?|
|the SSD Heresies|
|Who are the top SSD
companies?... the companies which you absolutely have to look at if you've got
any new projects involving SSDs? |
|the Top SSD Companies|
|Looking back at the last 5
years or so - since the start of the SSD market bubble - I realized - while
writing this - that if I were to create a list of all the financial institutions
who have directly contacted me with questions about the SSD market it would
start to resemble - in length - something akin to my (seldom maintained because
it's already far too long and unwieldy) list of SATA SSD companies. |
|who's who in SSD
Ridgetop Research (July 16, 2014)
|"A critical test of
whether you really understand the dynamics of a complex market like enterprise
SSDs - is whether you can predict what rational buyers might do when offered new
product options at the extreme limits of - for example - price."|
Analysis in SSD Market Forecasting|
|One thing which hasn't
changed since the early days of enterprise flash - is the concept of "naughty
This is a new type of brash flash memory which
sensible, cautious types point at while waving their fingers sternly and
declaiming dire warning - that's never going to be reliable enough for the
This has happened many times.
|enterprise flash -
a 10 year history|
|"I can tell you now -
that any prescriptive guide which says - this is exactly what you need to do to
buy the best notebook or server or military SSD is doomed to failure at the
start - because users don't know they are asking the wrong questions."|
|the problem with SSD
education (and comprehension) - July 2010|